Technical Controls – The security controls (i.e., safeguards or countermeasures) for an information system that are primarily implemented and executed by the information system through mechanisms contained in the hardware, software, or firmware components of the system.
Organizational Controls – The security controls (i.e., safeguards or countermeasures) for an information system that primarily are implemented and executed by people (as opposed to systems).NIST-800
The definitions above come from the glossary of the NIST-800 series of cybersecurity publications. While they are focused on cybersecurity, the broader concepts – automated controls versus manual controls – are applicable elsewhere. Over the last couple of weeks, and especially since I attended the TUgis conference, I have been thinking about these concepts in terms of data in general and schema in particular.
I find schema to be an interesting concept. The term “schema” is fairly wide-ranging in its definition but it can be defined as “an underlying organizational pattern or structure; conceptual framework.”